20O MY COUNTRY AND MY PEOPLE they can retire in wealth and comfort"ówords that might have been written for a great part of the villadom that is living in retirement in Dairen or the Shanghai Settlements. He said that because of the lack of a system, "people were promoted according to their party connections, and were obliged to divert their attention to social entertainments rather than the fulfilment of the law." How true these words are to-day, only officials and official candidates themselves know. There was an important passage which contained the very interesting phrase kungmin ("public citizen") and which tried to account for the general apathy and indifference of the people toward their national affairs. He said in effect: "Now you send people to fight. They will be killed whether they go forward or turn back. That is dangerous for them. You ask them to forsake their own private pursuits and join the military service, and when they are poor, those above do not pay them any attention. Of course, they remain poor. Now who likes to be in danger and poverty? Naturally, they will try to keep away from you. Therefore they will mind their own business and will be interested in building their own houses and will try to avoid war. By avoiding war, they will have security. But by practising graft and bribery, they can become rich and secure themselves for life. Now who would not like to be wealthy and to live in peace? And how can you prevent them from seeking peace and wealth? This is the reason why there are so few public citizens and so many private individuals," It is still true to-day that we have too few public citizens and too many private individuals and the reason is to be found in the lack of adequate legal protection. It has nothing to do with morals. The evil lies in the system. When it is too dangerous for a man to be too public-spirited, it is natural that he should take an apathetic attitude toward national affairs, and when there is no punishment for greedy and corrupt officials, it is too much to ask of human nature that they should not be corrupt. Hence Hanfeitse believed in the establishment of an "inviol- able law which should apply to both the ruler and the ruled alike." He believed that the law should be supreme, that all people should be equal before the law, and that this law should be applied in place of personal preferences and connections.